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Discuss Leveled Literacy Intervention and the LLI supporting resources.

LLI and Barton Dyslexia program--need help! Messages in this topic - RSS

User 615554
User 615554
Posts: 1


9/17/2015
User 615554
User 615554
Posts: 1
I have been using the LLI system and love it. However, our school has also purchased the Barton Reading System for dyslexia therapy, and is following a sample school that has replaced their LLI system with the Barton system for all their struggling readers. What should I do? I don't want to abandon LLI.
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Helenann Steensen, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Helenann Steensen, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Posts: 671


9/19/2015
Fountas and Pinnell state, “Dyslexia is an umbrella term that covers a variety of learning disabilities. LLI was not specifically designed to meet the needs of students who have been tested and determined to have learning disabilities and been given an I.E.P. In general, it is an early intervention designed to be used when the teacher`s assessment shows that the student has difficulty and is not able to meet grade level standards. It`s broad base allows for acceleration across reading, writing, and phonics, and the combination of research-based instructional actions meets the needs of most students.


LLI can be used with learning disabled students after a team meets and determines that the components of LLI are consistent with the student`s I.E.P. Many students have been served in this category.”


Children with Dyslexia need a multi-sensory approach. In general, this means presenting all information to students via three sensory modalities: visual, auditory, and tactile. Visual presentation techniques include graphic organizers for structuring writing and pictures for reinforcing instruction; auditory presentation techniques include conducting thorough discussions and reading aloud; tactile presentation techniques include manipulation and creating paragraphs about objects students can hold in their hands. Overall, implementing a multi-sensory approach to teaching is not difficult; in fact, many teachers use such an approach. It is important, however, to be aware of the three sensory modes and to plan to integrate them every day.


As you know, during LLI lessons, teachers engage students in the reading/writing process by explicitly demonstrating/modeling, prompting for and reinforcing the strategic actions involved in the literacy process. Graphic Organizers are used in the classroom/homework sheets. Pictures are added to the writing section and phonics components. Elkonin Sound and Letter boxes are used in the Phonemic and Phonic Study to promote blending and segmenting of sounds through visual, auditory and visual experiences. Magnetic letters are used to assist children in not only the look of letters, but the feel and manipulation of letters and sounds to construct, blend and segment words. Discussions occur before, during and after the reading to engage students in thinking literally, thinking beyond text by making connections and inferences and thinking about text analytically and critically.

Please refer to the following link to see the Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI)
Reading Progress for Special Education LLI students from 2009–2010: http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/research/LLI_DataColl_SPED-subreport_JULY2011.pdf
Results of this evaluation indicate that as a group, the 824 Special Education struggling readers who received Leveled Literacy Intervention supplementary instruction demonstrated accelerated progress over the period they received LLI (Fountas and Pinnell 10-month guidelines). These results suggest that LLI is an effective short-term intervention for struggling readers who have an IEP for Reading or other categories.


Choosing the right program for the child's needs is what is critical to achieve success. I have spoken with teachers who have used LLI with Dyslexic students with great success.
Wishing you the best as you make decisions for instruction of this special student.

--
Helenann Steensen, Official Fountas & Pinnell Consultant, Heinemann
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User 657784
User 657784
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11/19/2015
User 657784
User 657784
Posts: 1
The description of multi-sensory instruction here is inaccurate and is not at all in line with design of the multi-sensory methodology developed by Orton-Gillingham. I am concerned with the claims that LLI is appropriate for students with dyslexia and I hope to see thorough research soon.

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Helenann Steensen, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Helenann Steensen, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Posts: 671


12/14/2015
"LLI can be used with learning disabled students after a team meets and determines that the components of LLI are consistent with the student`s I.E.P. Many students have been served in this category." Choosing the right intervention for each student is critical to gaining proficiency in reading and writing. If LLI is chosen, progress should be continually evaluated. No instruction should be administered without daily evaluation for the effectiveness and appropriateness for each student.

--
Helenann Steensen, Official Fountas & Pinnell Consultant, Heinemann
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FPUser67038
FPUser67038
Posts: 2


1/24/2018
FPUser67038
FPUser67038
Posts: 2
Helenann Steensen, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant wrote:
"LLI can be used with learning disabled students after a team meets and determines that the components of LLI are consistent with the student`s I.E.P. Many students have been served in this category." Choosing the right intervention for each student is critical to gaining proficiency in reading and writing. If LLI is chosen, progress should be continually evaluated. No instruction should be administered without daily evaluation for the effectiveness and appropriateness for each student.
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FPUser67038
FPUser67038
Posts: 2


1/24/2018
FPUser67038
FPUser67038
Posts: 2
LLI is not a good choice for students who have been screened for "at risk" for dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association will say that the best instruction for Dyslexia is Orton-Gillingham, or Structured Literacy. I am glad to see that your district has the Barton System for the students that are exhibiting dyslexia.
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Debbie Magoulick, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Debbie Magoulick, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Posts: 511


1/25/2018
FPUser67038 wrote:
LLI is not a good choice for students who have been screened for "at risk" for dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association will say that the best instruction for Dyslexia is Orton-Gillingham, or Structured Literacy. I am glad to see that your district has the Barton System for the students that are exhibiting dyslexia.



Looking at overall research for dyslexia, not just the International Dyslexia Association, you will find that LLI can be a very good choice for an intervention for students identified as "at risk for dyslexia." Research shows there are many areas of the brain involved in the symptoms of reading disorders often lumped under the dyslexia umbrella. Processing in brain areas for phonological awareness, decoding , language, memory, and psychological (self-esteem) to name a few. LLI lessons include ways to address all of these as needed by the individual students in the small group so has been found to be successful with an increasing number of students with many learning disabilities including the symptoms of dyslexia. The Phonics and Word Study part of every lesson include many flexible ways to solve words rather than only phonics (letter-sound relationships) which is usually the focus of the programs you mention.


Yale's guide for helping those with dyslexia even includes the following statement about interventions
"Interventions should focus on the whole child so that those with dyslexia not only learn to read, but develop self-awareness about who they are and what it means to
be dyslexic."



In When Readers Struggle chapter 3 you can read more about the areas of difficulty that are included in LLI lessons, many associated with readers "at risk of dyslexia."


Please be more fully informed when making such statements about LLI.



Debbie
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ACSD
ACSD
Posts: 1


7 days ago
ACSD
ACSD
Posts: 1


http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/research/LLI_DataColl_SPED-subreport_JULY2011.pdf


This study did not have a control group and only compared the SPED LLI students growth with F&P grade level criteria. Possibly the only reason why these students were successful was that they were given small group instruction more frequently versus whole classroom instruction. Had you compared your growth with a group of students that were given a structured literacy program such as Fundations by Wilson or Barton Reading and a control group of students continuing to use a typical gen. ed program I'm sure your results would not look quite the same. I also don't believe a growth of 1-2 levels in reading is acceptable for a struggling reader, these students would still be behind in grade level reading compared their peers in general ed.


"At most grade levels, the SPED LLI students moved forward at an accelerated pace when compared to typical reading progress over time according to Fountas and Pinnell guidelines" This is true for 61.4% of the students in SPED LLI but not for the other 38.6% who either didn't make any progress (4.9%) or only move 1-2 levels (33.7%). This program perhaps is not appropriate for these students and a Structured Literacy program would likely prove more beneficial before they get even further behind their peers than they already have. There are many programs similar to F&P that work for "most" kids but they don't work for those that truly struggle to read like students that have dyslexia. All students, however, would benefit from a structured literacy program because it will make them not only stronger readers but stronger spellers and writers too.


This article by Louisa Moats explains why students that struggle to read need structured literacy. Programs such Barton Reading as already mentioned by someone else on this page is an example of this type of instruction.
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498005.pdf
edited by ACSD on 2/10/2019
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Helenann Steensen, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Helenann Steensen, Fountas & Pinnell Consultant
Posts: 671


6 days ago
ACSD wrote:


http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/research/LLI_DataColl_SPED-subreport_JULY2011.pdf


This study did not have a control group and only compared the SPED LLI students growth with F&P grade level criteria. Possibly the only reason why these students were successful was that they were given small group instruction more frequently versus whole classroom instruction. Had you compared your growth with a group of students that were given a structured literacy program such as Fundations by Wilson or Barton Reading and a control group of students continuing to use a typical gen. ed program I'm sure your results would not look quite the same. I also don't believe a growth of 1-2 levels in reading is acceptable for a struggling reader, these students would still be behind in grade level reading compared their peers in general ed.


"At most grade levels, the SPED LLI students moved forward at an accelerated pace when compared to typical reading progress over time according to Fountas and Pinnell guidelines" This is true for 61.4% of the students in SPED LLI but not for the other 38.6% who either didn't make any progress (4.9%) or only move 1-2 levels (33.7%). This program perhaps is not appropriate for these students and a Structured Literacy program would likely prove more beneficial before they get even further behind their peers than they already have. There are many programs similar to F&P that work for "most" kids but they don't work for those that truly struggle to read like students that have dyslexia. All students, however, would benefit from a structured literacy program because it will make them not only stronger readers but stronger spellers and writers too.


This article by Louisa Moats explains why students that struggle to read need structured literacy. Programs such Barton Reading as already mentioned by someone else on this page is an example of this type of instruction.
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498005.pdf
edited by ACSD on 2/10/2019


Thank you for your interest in LLI and the research behind it. I will attempt to add clarity to a few facts related to some of your expressed concerns. As educators we each strive to do the best for the children we serve and recognize that there never is one tool or one program that reaches every child with total success. It takes a professional using multiple tools to get the necessary change. Please refer to previous statements in this thread regarding the necessity of choosing the right intervention for each child.

The cited study was conducted for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of LLI as an intervention for struggling SPED readers. The criteria for selecting LLI as an appropriate intervention occurs only “after a team meets and determines that the components of LLI are consistent with the student`s I.E.P."

The study was not intended to provide a comparison to other programs but focus on results obtained with LLI in comparison to Fountas and Pinnell gradient text expectations for progress of all readers. “The results reported for the SPED LLI students are extremely positive given the variation in the grade level of students, the degree to which they were reading below grade level, and the variability of delivery. Only a small percent-age of students [4.9%: 31 children] made no growth, 38.7% advanced 1-2 levels [212 students] and 61.4% [387 students] made considerable progress [i.e. from 3 to 7 levels].”

Why some students: 4.9% made no growth or 38.7% increased 1-2 levels could be due to a number of reasons. Again, each student is different and each requires different kinds and lengths of instructional support. LLI lessons provide extensive instructional suggestions for meeting different needs of readers at different levels. How many levels each student needs to increase would be based on need and would be different for each student based on their grade level, IEP and current reading level. “It should be noted, however, that many students were not able to receive the full intervention as the school year ended and their LLI teachers indicated that they would receive more LLI the following year.” This indicates that as professionals, the teachers had determined that LLI was proving successful for these students and there was a plan in place to continue. “LLI was designed to be delivered in a group of three students with one teacher, five days per week; however, delivery varied according to school and district limitations. Overall, each of the SPED LLI groups was comprised of between 1 and 5 students and the groups met between 2 and 5 days a week for 30 minutes per session (see Table 4 of the executive summary).” So, despite the varied implementation, most students (95%) made varying degrees progress.



Finally the executive summary states ... “These results suggest that LLI is an effective short-term intervention for struggling readers who have an IEP for Reading or other categories.” Professional teacher judgement is always critical to determining the best intervention for each child.

Thank you for your interest regarding LLI and its effectiveness as a tool for reaching the most struggling readers,

--
Helenann Steensen, Official Fountas & Pinnell Consultant, Heinemann
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